The family must be at the heart of the Indian health system
GS Paper 2
Program: Issues relating to health, education, human resources.
Source: Indian Express
Direction: Go through it once to understand the problem.
The context: Assessing health care in India
Health system in India: multilevel structure.
- PHC at village level: a community agent operates and provides services covering 12 diseases/needs.
- At block level: there is a 30-bed community health center run by four specialists
- Departmental level: Hospital/medical school
History of health reforms: Report of the Bhore Committee (1946)the Kartar Singh Committee Report (1973), the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of 2005 and the Ayushman Bharat Mission of 2019.
NRHM was outstanding as it established the Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) for physical infrastructure, human resources and service delivery, and resulted in a three-fold budget increase.
- Institutional deliveries increased from 41% in 2005 to 89% in 2021,
- Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) increased from 407 per one lakh of women in 2,000 to 113 per one lakh of women in 2021,
- The infant mortality rate reduced from 58/1,000 live births in 2005 to about 28/1,000 live births in 2021
- Use of the health system has recorded impressive improvement in states like Bihar and UP.
Limits: The primary health care system continues to be plagued with shortcomings and loopholes,
overcrowding, poor facilities, small budget (just 1.1% of GDP)
- National Policy must be agile and allow for differential strategies, as a single system may not fit the whole country.
- The Center should adopt the principles of flexibility and decentralization and provides space for innovation for states and districts plan, design and implement primary care based on local needs. The role of central government should be limited to measuring results.
Issues related to the health sector
Q. Mention the problems with the public health system in India. How can these problems be solved? Explain. (250 words)